Pharaohs, Freemasons and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Jesus… this book came out in 1996, well before the release of The DaVinci Code movies. Being inspired by its predecessor book “Holy Blood Holy Grail”, it reveals amazing research about how the modern Free Masons secret mystery teachings, rituals and initiations can be positively linked to the mystery teachings of the famous Knights Templar, who were the offshoot of the Nasoreans/Essenes and the Jerusalem Church of Jesus and James, which got it from the ancient Egyptian Mystery Schools. The very resurrection story of Jesus and the resurrection of Lazarus is the same Third Degree Master Mason initiation of death and resurrection which goes back through all of these said secret orders, going back to the original King-making resurrection ritual of ancient Egypt. This book also reveals how the famous relic, the Shroud of Turin, is actually the face of the Jacques de Molay, the famous leader of the Knights Templar who was brutally tortured with an almost exact Crucifixion torture, to the brink of death to get a fake confession from him and then eventually burnt alive after later recanting his confessions under extreme torture. The famous Shroud of Turin has been thought to be the miraculous face of Christ but learning that it is actually the face of de Molay reveals much about the hidden history of these secret traditions and why the Catholic Church persecuted them so heavily. This book also reveals how the famous Rosslyn Chapel of Scotland is actually a Knights Templar temple and how it was built in an exact replica to the original design of Herod’s temple in Jerusalem and how there are secret scrolls which the Knights Templar found below Herod’s Temple after the destruction in 70 AD, which they took possession of and then buried in the secret vaults below Rosslyn Chapel, which have yet to be excavated…
This book is a goldmine of information and secrets which show without a doubt that the original Jerusalem Church of Jesus and James (the Nasoreans), which was in direct opposition to Saul/Paul and his gentile church which later became the Catholic Church, was descended from the ancient Egyptian mystery schools, and later became the Knights Templar and later the Free Masons. Although the book reveals that most Masons, while knowing many of the secret passwords, handshakes, rituals, initiations and legends of Freemasonry, they most often have no idea the meaning of these secrets or where they came from. This book (written by 2 Master Masons) reveals many of the hidden meanings and history of these secrets for the first time in maybe hundreds or even thousands of years of mystery…
I don’t agree with everything in this book, most notably their claim that Jesus died in 33 AD, but overall I am in 99% agreement with this entire book and its thesis and this research ties into many of the theories of researcher Ralph Ellis and his many books. Suffice it to say, you should read this amazing book.
Here is a video presentation by one of the authors, Christopher Knight :
Jesus & Mary Magdalene were a Sacred Couple and had babies and this bloodline is the mythic Holy Grail that has been sought and protected for the last 2000 years, forced underground by the Pauline Church. They taught Gnostic realization of our true Divinity as the goal for all beings into the Christhood of Pure Divine Gnosis 🕉
The ancient Egyptians considered their country to be the body of Osiris, the Green Man. The Nile River was his spine and his chakras were the sequential vortexes that lay along its length, from south to north. The sacred architects of Khem marked these power spots with temples and installed within them the neter (deity) associated with the corresponding chakra. Egyptian initiates would then travel to each of Osiris’s chakra temples and undergo an initiation to alchemically activate the same chakra within their own bodies.
The temple marking Osiris’ First and Earth Chakra- and the residence of the Green Man’s alchemical Kundalini – was built in the southern city of Aswan and its adjoining sacred Nile island of Elephanta. Here giant rocks took the form of immense elephants, the animals associated with earth element and the Earth Chakra. The neter of the temple was Khnum, the fiery ram god that embodied the Kundalini power that had created the cosmos and alchemically transforms a human initiate.
The temple marking Osiris’s 2nd and Water Chakra was built north of Aswan over the vortex of Kom-Ombo, and its neter was Sobek, the crocodile god. Legend has it that before a seeker could undergo a 2nd chakra initiation at Kom-Ombo he or she was required to survive a terrifying swim through a dark underground vault of water filled with live crocodiles.
The temple marking Osiris’ 3rd Chakra and Solar Plexus was at Edfu and dedicated to Horus, a neter of the Sun. The 4th Heart Chakra of Osiris was at Dendera and dedicated to Hathor, the Goddess of Love. The temple marking Osiris’ 5th Chakra of communication was at Memphis, the capital of ancient Khem that was in constant communication with the rest of the country. And Osiris’s 6th and 7th Chakras were united as the Giza Plateau and its Great Pyramid. This is where the final initiation was given to a Djedhi to complete the ascension of the Kundalini to the head and fully activate the Third Eye and Crown Chakras.
The path of Kundalini Yoga was initially brought to Egypt by the Thoth-Hermes Masters of Atlantis, where its patrons had been the Kaberoi Twins. On ancient Lemuria the Kaberoi had been known as the Kumara Twins, Sanat and Sananda, the founders of Gnostic-Alchemical Path and the vehicle of its dissemination to Atlantis, the Order of the Seven Rays. The Seven Ray Order later became known as the Great White Brotherhood.
On Atlantis the Kaberoi were the “Two Fires,” the dual parts of Neptune in his manifestation as the Fire Serpent or Kundalini, and they were represented as the Twin Snakes on the caduceus of Thoth-Hermes. In Egypt, they became the Twin Sons of Neptune in his manifestation as Fire God Ptah.
In Egypt, the Kaberoi Twins also took the form of Seth and Horus, and the dual serpentine pathways in the etheric body, the Ida and Pingala Nadis, became known as the Paths of Seth and Horus. During the alchemical process the two nadis and the polar opposite charges moving through them unite to become as the Dj, the Serpent Fire, to rise up the Djed column (the spine). The Kundalini, which is mentioned in Egyptian texts as Iart or Aart, meaning “to rise,” states Egyptologist Isa Shwaller de Lubiz, “alluded to, the rising of the snake of fire along the spinal column “
The alchemical tools used by the Egyptian Masters to prepare Djedhi candidates for initiation in the Great Pyramid included asanas (stretches), pranayama (breath control), fasting, meditation, study of the ancient scrolls, and attendance at the regularly staged dramatizations of the death and spiritual rebirth of the archetypal initiate, Osiris, at Sais, Philae, Busiris and Abydos. During this drama, after being murdered by his brother Seth, a personification of the destructive Kundalini, Osiris was represented on stage by his spine, the Djed Pillar, which was laid horizontally on its side. Osiris’s subsequent resurrection and immortality was then enacted by raising the Djed Pillar to its vertical position, thus representing the rise of the Dj (the Serpent) up the Djed (the spine) to the apex of the head of the archetypal initiate. This part of the drama is still intact and beautifully portrayed in relief on a wall of Osiris’s principal headquarters at Abydos. Close by is a depiction of Thoth handing the Twin Serpents to Osiris with one hand and an Ankh in another, symbolizing that through uniting the inner serpents to become the Kundalini, Osiris will achieve immortality.
From: The Return of the Serpents of Wisdom 🐍 by Mark Amaru Pinkham
There is starting to surface evidence that the Biblical patriarchs from Abraham, Jacob, Solomon, David, Moses and literally all the most relevant names even Jesus, which previously could not be found in the historical record, can now be found in the historic records if looked at in a slightly different era with slightly different names.. the history of the Hebrews & Egypt is very controversial & mixed in ways that made their symbology & traditions almost indistinguishable at times, and eventually Egypt became the scapegoat and thing to reject and divorce from seemingly in extreme ways.. but when you connect the Essene-Nazorean, Knights Templar & Free Mason history & symbology you start to see how these Egyptian Mystery School traditions were maintained covertly for thousands of years.. despite the sometimes overt and extreme cover-up… Imagine now that many of the great Patriarchs of the Bible were actually great Pharoahs of Egypt… 🤯🤯
Read books like “Jesus Last of the Pharoahs” and “Solomon Pharoah of Egypt” by researcher Ralph Ellis for more info & evidence on this. The implications of this cover-up is manifold & revealing! 📖📚🧐🤔𓂀
The Serpent Gnostic sects of Egypt included known as the Ophites and Naaseni. Both names are Greek and denote “Serpents.” The Fourth Century historian Philaster maintained that these sects, along with the Sethians and Cainites, were specially united by having descended directly from the First Instructor and Serpent on the Tree. Of these sects the Ophites (from Ophidian, “snake”) and Nasseni (from Hebrew Naas or Nachash, “snake”) were unique in being the pre-eminent worshipers of live snakes. Like Serpent Gnostics worldwide, they were also renown for having “knowledge of the deepest things.”
The Naaseni are believed to have descended from the original gnostics in the west, and to have existed well before the birth of Christ. They are related to the Nasurai, the enlightened gnostics of the Mandeans, who blended with the Essenes to form the sect of Nasoreans or “Nazarenes.” The Mandaean Nasurai Jesus was born into this Essene Serpent sect and known by his peers as the Nasorean (or the Nazarene). Long after his Ascension, his Apostles continued the Serpent tradition of Jesus and named their little group Nasoreans. Jesus’s brother, James, oversaw this small group and continued to tradition of remaining in contact with other Serpent Gnostics in the Middle East. According to historical record, James sent “Mariam” with some very secretive “Serpent” teachings to transmit to the Nasseni of Alexandria. This Nasorean Mariam is believed to be none other than Mary Magadalene, who was apparently in association with the Apostles and their Nasorean sect long after the departure of Jesus.
According to the historian Epiphanius, the most important live snake of the Nasseni and Ophites was venerated as the First Instructor and commonly kept in a special chest known as the Cista Mystica, which was only opened during the most sacred of rituals. At mealtimes the favored snake, which the Serpent Gnostics addressed as their Savior, was coaxed out of its box and let loose to consecrate their food by slithering over and around it. Afterwards, the Ophites would take turns kissing the sacred snake upon the mouth and then sinking to their knees in humble worship of the reptile. These and other more secretive rites of the Ophites were timed with the ascension of the Celestial Serpent, the constellation of Draco the Dragon, which was acknowledged by them to be the eternal heavenly manifestation of the First Instructor.
The Ophites and Nasseni employed various Greek and Hebrew names for their Serpent Savior, including Nachash, Kneph, Chnouphis, and the Agathodeamon. For protection they carried coins, talismans and gems with images of their serpent deity carved deeply into them. The gems and talismans were often bright red in color, thus reflecting the fiery nature of the serpent engraved upon them, and covered with Greek mantras and symbols. The red gems also activated the Kundalini, which was a form of the Serpent Savior in the human body. Ophite initiate’s were known to spend long periods of time in the caves of the Egyptian desert while propitiating their Serpent Savior and his transformative power.
For their academic contemplation the Gnostic Nasseni studied The Gospel According to Thomas and they were known to have been great fans of The Gospel According to the Egyptians. They were also inveterate devotees of the Goddess and adopted many of Her rites that had been observed in the Eleusinian Mysteries and other Left Hand Path schools.
From: “World Gnosis: The Coming Gnostic Civilization” 🐉 by Mark Amaru Pinkham
One of the most fascinating people in history is Cleopatra VII, her family & lovers… their story & bloodline is shrouded in mystery and is possibly the greatest cover-up in history.
One of the theories is that Jesus Christ is closely related to Cleopatra.. but why would they cover this up??
Another interesting fact is that the 1st King James Version of the Bible was commissioned by King James himself to be translated into English by a mysterious man named Sir Francis Bacon.. there is another theory that William Shakespeare is actually just the pin-name of Francis Bacon.
Notice the similarities between the original King James Bible and the works of Shakespeare… it is also known that Francis Bacon was a highly initiated Rosicrucian.. and many of his works (whether as Bacon or as pin-name Shakespeare) are full of Masonic symbolism and metaphors.. One of the most famous stories of Shakespeare is that of the love story of Julius Caesar & Cleopatra.. and Marc Anthony & their mysterious royal children….
This stuff keeps me up at night!!
There have been many authors & researchers that claim Cleopatra was Caucasian and thus all the white-washed images & movie depictions of her… but the recent finding of Cleopatra’s sister Princess Arsinoe’s skeleton suggests they had mixed ancestry with definitely an African bloodline… which should be obvious.. considering they married into the ancient African Egyptian Royal Pharaoh lineage.. see this video for proof..𓂀
There is a theory by some authors and researchers that most of the Royals, some of the Pharaohs, in particular Rameses II, and even Jesus & Mary Magdalene were Blue Eyed, Red heads with freckles… and thus they claim that they had to have been Caucasian Blue Eyed Red Heads.. but I gotta remind all that you can have red hair, freckles, blue, green or hazel eyes and still be Black, and even the Waka Blondes of New Zealand & Hawaii (Ehu) and the Blondes of Fiji & Solomon Islands can all still be dark or light skinned.
There are various sources online which propose this theory that all the Royals had Red or Blonde Hair and Blue Eyes.. and you can also search RH- Blood and Royals.. but my issue with some of these claims is that they almost always conclude that these Royals had to have been Caucasian then.. but through a simple google search you can see that Red Hair, Blonde Hair, Freckles, Blue, Green and Hazel Eyes can happen in Black and Brown people too.. so while rare… the rarity doesn’t conclusively mean all these royals must’ve been White. If indeed Red/Blonde Hair and Blue eyes was a signifying trait of the Royals.. it could’ve just as easily been that.. rare family of Black red heads with Blue/Green eyes… especially those that lived in Egypt, Africa or the Middle East.
Saint Sarah aka Santa Sara La Kali aka Sarah the Egyptian aka Sarasvati Lakshmi Kali, daughter of Jesus & Mary Magdalene, known by Catholics as Egyptian servant to the Three Mary’s as they fled from Roman persecution in Jerusalem to France to a place now known as Saintes Maries de la Mer in Camarque, France.
To the Romani Gypsies, she is Santa Sara la Kali, the Patron Saint of the Gypsies. To Gnostics, Essenes & Nazoreans she was actually the daughter of Jesus & Mary Magdalene, disguised as a servant to hide her true identity. It is said that, every year since their arrival the people have been celebrating the day of their arrival to France at the coast with a large pilgrimage festival. The day of the pilgrimage honouring Sarah is May 24; her statue is carried down to the sea on this day to re-enact her arrival in France.
Some authors have drawn parallels between the ceremonies of the pilgrimage and the worship of the Hindu goddess Kali (a form of Durga), subsequently identifying the two. Ronald Lee states:
“If we compare the ceremonies with those performed in France at the shrine of Sainte Sara (called Sara e Kali in Romani), we become aware that the worship of Kali/Durga/Sara has been transferred to a Christian figure… in France, to a non-existent “sainte” called Sara, who is actually part of the Kali/Durga/Sara worship among certain groups in India.”
The name “Sara” itself is seen in the appellation of Durga as Kali in the famed text Durgasaptashati.
In The Rozabal Line, author Ashwin Sanghi puts forward that Sara-la-Kali refers to the three Hindu goddesses – Saraswati, Lakshmi, and Kali – the goddesses of Knowledge, Wealth and Power – symbolizing the trinity of female power.
We are already aware… based on recent scientific studies of DNA, that modern humanity originated in Africa, that African people are the world’s aboriginal people and that all modern humans can ultimately trace their ancestral roots back to Africa. If not for the primordial migrations of early African people, humanity would have remained physically Africoid, and the rest of the world outside of the African continent absent of human life. This is our starting point.
Since the first modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) were of African birth, the African presence globally can be demonstrated through the history of the Black populations that have inhabited the world within the span of recent humanity. Not only are African people the aboriginal people of the planet, however, there is abundant evidence to show that Black people created and sustained many of the world’s earliest and most enduring civilizations. Such was the case in India.
The questions we pose here are simply these: Who are the African people of India? What is their significance in the annals of history? Precisely what have they done and what are they doing now? These are extremely serious questions that warrant serious and fundamental answers.
ANCIENT AFRICA AND EARLY INDIA
Exceptionally valuable writings reflecting close relationships between Africa and early India have existed for more than two thousand years. In the first century B.C.E., for example, the famous Greek historian Diodorus Siculus penned that,
“From Ethiopia he (Osiris) passed through Arabia, bordering upon the Red Sea as far as India…. He built many cities in India, one of which he called Nysa, willing to have remembrance of that (Nysa) in Egypt, where he was brought up.”
INDIA’S EARLIEST CIVILIZATION
In Greater India, more than a thousand years before the foundations of Greece and Rome, proud and industrious Black men and women known as Dravidians erected a powerful civilization. We are referring here to the Indus Valley civilization- -India’s earliest high-culture, with major cities spread out along the course of the Indus River. The Indus Valley civilization was at its height from about 2200 B.C.E. to 1700 B.C.E. This phase of its history is called the Harappan, the name being derived from Harappa, one of the earliest known Indus Valley cities.
In 1922, about 350 miles northeast of Harappa, another large Indus city, Mohenjo-daro (the Mound of the Dead) was identified. Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were apparently the chief administrative centers of the Indus Valley complex, and since their identification, several additional cities, including Chanhu-daro, Kalibangan, Quetta and Lothal have been excavated.
The Indus cities possessed multiple level houses enhanced by sophisticated wells, drainage systems and bathrooms with flushing toilets. A recognized scholar on the Indus Valley civilization, Dr. Walter Fairservis, states that the “Harappans cultivated cotton and perhaps rice, domesticated the chicken and may have invented the game of chess and one of the two great early sources of nonmuscle power: the windmill.”
The decline and fall of the Indus Valley civilization has been linked to several factors, the most important of which were the increasingly frequent incursions of the White people known in history as Aryans–violent Indo-European tribes initially from central Eurasia and later Iran. Indeed, the name Iran means the “land of the Aryan.”
APARTHEID IN INDIA
The White tribes that invaded India and disrupted Black civilization there are known as Aryans. The Aryans were not necessarily superior warriors to the Blacks but they were aggressive, developed sophisticated military technologies and glorified military virtues. After hundreds of years of intense martial conflict the Aryans succeeded in subjugating most of northern India. Throughout the vanquished territories a rigid, caste-segmented social order was established with the masses of conquered Blacks (called Shudras) essentially reduced to slaves to the Whites and imposed upon for service in any capacity required by their White conquerors. This vicious new world order was cold-bloodily racist, with the Whites on top, the mixed races in the middle, and the overwhelming majority of Black people on the very bottom. In fact, the Aryan term varna, denoting one’s societal status and used interchangeably with caste, literally means color or complexion and reflects a prevalent racial hierarchy. Truly, India is still a racist country. White supremacist David Duke claimed “that his 1970′s visit to India was a turning point in his views on the superiority of the White race.”
Caste law in India, based originally on race, regulated all aspects of life, including marriage, diet, education, place of residence and occupation. This is not to deny that there were certain elements of the Black aristocracy that managed to gain prominence in the dominant White social structure. The masses of conquered Black people, however, were regarded by the Whites as Untruth itself. The Whites claimed to have emerged from the mouth of God; the Blacks, on the other hand, were said to have emerged from the feet of God. This was the ugly reality for the Black masses in conquered India. It was written that:
“A Sudra [Black] who intentionally reviles twice-born men [Whites] by criminal abuse, or criminally assaults them with blows, shall be deprived of the limb with which he offends. If he has criminal intercourse with an Aryan woman, his organ shall be cut off, and all his property confiscated. If the woman has a protector, the Sudra shall be executed. If he listens intentionally to a recitation of the Veda [a traditional Hindu religious text], his tongue shall be cut out. If he commits them to memory his body shall be split in half.”
Servitude to Whites became the basis of the lives of the Black people of India for generation after generation after generation. With the passage of time, this brutally harsh, color-oriented, racially-based caste system became the foundation of the religion that is now practiced throughout all India. This is the religion known as Hinduism.
THE BUDDHA AND BUDDHISM IN INDIA
Buddhism appeared in India during the sixth century B.C.E. and came in the form of a protest against Hinduism. Buddhism opposed the arrogance of caste, and preached tolerance. It should not be surprising, then, that it developed a large and rapid following in the regions of India where the Blacks had survived in substantial numbers. On the emergence of Buddhism in India, Diop has suggested that:
“It would seem that Buddha was an Egyptian priest, chased from Memphis by the persecution of Cambyses. This tradition would justify the portrayal of Buddha with woolly hair. Historical documents do not invalidate this tradition…There is general agreement today on placing in the sixth century not only Buddha but the whole religious and philosophical movement in Asia with Confucius in China, Zoroaster in Iran. This would confirm the hypothesis of a dispersion of Egyptian priests at that time spreading their doctrine in Asia.”
Dr. Vulindlela Wobogo, another African-centric scholar, has observed that:
“Manifestations of the Buddha in Asia are Black with woolly hair. They all appear to be Egypto-Nubian priests who fled Egypt…The priests carried their spiritual knowledge but lost much of the scientific knowledge for obvious reasons. The well-known aspects of Buddhism and its companion, yoga, are all simply Egypto-Nubian priesthood practices, meditation, and…the belief that one could attain a god-like state if the soul was liberated from the body through knowledge and denial.”
In a monumental two volume work entitled A Book of the Beginnings, originally published in 1881, Gerald Massey recorded that:
“It is not necessary to show that the first colonisers of India were Black, but it is certain that the Black Buddha of India was imaged in the Africoid type. In the Black [African] god, whether called Buddha or Sut-Nahsi, we have a datum. they carry in their color the proof of their origin. The people who first fashioned and worshipped the divine image in the Africoid mold of humanity must, according to all knowledge of human nature, have been Africans themselves. For the Blackness is not merely mystical, the features and the hair of Buddha belong to the Black race.”
In the first volume of his massive text Anacalypsis, Godfrey Higgins wrote that:
“The religion of Buddha, of India, is well known to have been very ancient. In the most ancient temples scattered through Asia, where his worship is yet continued, he is found black as jet, with the flat face, thick lips and curly hair of the African.”
DALIT: THE BLACK UNTOUCHABLES OF INDIA
Possibly the most substantial percentage of Asia’s Blacks can be identified among India’s 160 million “Untouchables” or “Dalits.” Frequently they are called “Outcasts.” Indian nationalist leader and devout Hindu Mohandas K. Gandhi called them “Harijans,” meaning “children of god.” The official name given them in India’s constitution (1951) is “Scheduled Castes.” “Dalit,” meaning “crushed and broken,” is a name that has come into prominence only within the last four decades. “Dalit” reflects a radically different response to oppression.
The Dalit are demonstrating a rapidly expanding awareness of their African ancestry and their relationship to the struggle of Black people throughout the world. They seem particularly enamored of African-Americans. African-Americans, in general, seem almost idolized by the Dalit, and the Black Panther Party, in particular, is virtually revered. In April 1972, for example, the Dalit Panther Party was formed in Bombay, India. This organization takes its pride and inspiration directly from the Black Panther Party of the United States. This is a highly important development due to the fact that the Untouchables have historically been so systematically terrorized that many of them, even today, live in a perpetual state of extreme fear of their upper caste oppressors. This is especially evident in the villages. The formation of the Dalit Panthers and the corresponding philosophy that accompanies it signals a fundamental change in the annals of resistance, and Dalit Panther organizations have subsequently spread to other parts of India. In August 1972, the Dalit Panthers announced that the 25th anniversary of Indian independence would be celebrated as a day of mourning. In 1981, in Bangalore, India Dravidian journalist V.T. Rajshekar published the first issue of Dalit Voice–the major English journal of the Black Untouchables. In a 1987 publication entitled the African Presence in Early Asia, Rajshekar stated that:
“The African-Americans also must know that their liberation struggle cannot be complete as long as their own blood-brothers and sisters living in far off Asia are suffering. It is true that African-Americans are also suffering, but our people here today are where African-Americans were two hundred years ago.
African-American leaders can give our struggle tremendous support by bringing forth knowledge of the existence of such a huge chunk of Asian Blacks to the notice of both the American Black masses and the Black masses who dwell within the African continent itself.”
HABSHIS AND SIDDIS: AFRICAN DYNASTIES IN INDIA
India also received its share of African bondsmen, of whom the most famous was the celebrated Malik Ambar (1550-1626). Ambar, like a number of Africans in medieval India, elevated himself to a position of great authority. Malik Ambar, whose original name was Shambu, was born around 1550 in Harar, Ethiopia. After his arrival in India Ambar was able to raise a formidable army and achieve great power in the west Indian realm of Ahmadnagar. Ambar was a brilliant diplomat and administrator. He encouraged manufactures and built canals and mosques. He gave pensions to poets and scholars, established a postal service, and ultimately became one of the most famous men in India.
In a collective form, however, and in respect to long term influence, the African sailors known as Siddis stand out. Certainly, Siddi kingdoms were established in western India in Janjira and Jaffrabad as early as 1100 AD. After their conversion to Islam, the African freedmen of India, originally called Habshi from the Arabic, called themselves Sayyad (descendants of Muhammad) and were consequently called Siddis. Indeed, the island Janjira was formerly called Habshan, meaning Habshan’s or African’s land. Siddi signifies lord or prince. It is further said that Siddi is an expression of respectful address commonly used in North Africa, like Sahib in India. Specifically, it is said to be an honorific title given to the descendants of African natives in the west of India, some of whom were distinguished military officers and administrators of the Muslim princes of the Deccan.
In the second decade of the sixteenth century a European traveler named Armando Cortesao noted that:
“The people who govern the kingdom [Bengal] are Abyssinians [Ethiopians]. These men are looked upon as knights; they are greatly esteemed; they wait on the kings in their apartments. The chief among them are eunuchs and these come to be kings and great lords in the kingdom. Those who are not eunuchs are the fighting men. After the king, it is to this people that the kingdom is obedient from fear.”
The Siddis were a tightly knit group, highly aggressive, and even ferocious in battle. They were employed largely as security forces for Muslim fleets in the Indian Ocean, a position they maintained for centuries. The Siddi commanders were titled Admirals of the Mughal Empire, and received an annual salary of 300,000 rupees. According to Ibn Battuta (1304-1377), the noted Muslim writer who journeyed through both Africa and Asia, the Siddis “are the guarantors of safety on the Indian Ocean; let there be but one of them on a ship and it will be avoided by the Indian pirates and idolaters.”
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